5 Major Ingredients
1. SALMON OLIGOPEPTIDE
Salmon oligopeptide is a compound with low molecule peptides that has beneficial effects to humans. It is an ideal antioxidant (Yang et al, 2011). Antioxidant functions to protect and reverse the damage caused by oxidation to some extent. Research has reported that salmon oligopeptide is capable to stop or limit
the damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Moreover, salmon oligopeptide can enhance the immune function and also help to prevent some diseases (Yang et al, 2009). Innate and adaptive immunities that enhanced by salmon oligopeptide via stimulating the secretion of cytokines has been reported by Yang et al (2010). With the use of salmon oligopeptide, pancreatic beta cells are being protected from apoptosis and it also acts as an anti-inflammatory agent through reduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (Zhu et al., 2010). Moreover, salmon oligopeptide also improves the blood sugar levels (Zhu et al., 2010). It also has anti- hypertensive properties (Gu et al, 2011).
2. SAKURA EXTRACT (CHERRY BLOSSOM)
The Sakura is a general term of deciduous high trees belonging to Prunus subgenus, Rose family (Rosaceae). Caffeoyl glucose and quercetin glucoside are bioactive components that have been identified in Sakura extract. Sakura extract has anti-inflammation properties. The bioactive components of sakura extract are able to suppress the
reaction of histamine being released from the mast cells and hence act as anti inflammatory agent. Moreover, sakura extract has whitening effect as it inhibits the production of melanin (Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co. Ltd., 2012). Sakura extract has been proven as anti-glycation agent. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) is resulted from Maillard reaction which is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars (Dyer, et al, 1993). Formation of AGEs induces the progression of age-related disease (Dyer et al, 1993). Glycation of collagen and elastin in skin induce accumulation of AGEs which then cause the damaged to the dermis collagen and the skin becomes wrinkled and dull (Dyer et al, 1993). AGEs also induce roughness of skin surface and stiff skin (Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co. Ltd., 2012). Hence, sakura extract functioned to enhance the growth of fibroblasts and collagen lattice and acts as anti-aging agent (Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co. Ltd., 2012).
3. MARINE COLLAGEN PEPTIDE
Collagen makes up 30% of the protein in human bodies and is a major extracellular matrix. It can be found in the skin, joints, bones, tendons and blood vessels. It functions to maintain the elasticity of the skin. Marine collagen which is derived from marine resources is a low molecular weight peptide. It has biological functions which include anti-oxidation, anti-hypertension and anti-ageing (Lin et al, 2012). Research has shown that marine collagen have protective effect for liver and can improve lipid metabolism (Lin et al, 2012). Besides, marine collagen can also increase the skin elasticity through stimulating the production of collagen of the skin cells (Proksch et al, 2013). Hence, it can maintain youthful and vibrant skin and also neutralizing the skin’s continuous aging deterioration by re-densifying dermis (Proksch et al, 2013). Furthermore, it also has skin moisturizing effect (Proksch et al, 2013). Reports have shown that there is a positive impact on the skin over longer period (Proksch et al, 2013). Marine collagen can also facilitate learning and memory via reducing oxidative damage in the brain and increasing the expression of neuronal gene (Pei et al, 2010).
4. FOLIC ACID
Folic acid is also known as water soluble vitamin B. It can be found in leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes) and whole grains. It plays a key role in proper development of human body. This vitamin is involved in producing the genetic material called DNA. Therein, folic acid helps to prevent major birth defects such as spina bifida (a congenital defect of the spine in which the part of the spinal cord and the brain are exposed via a gap in the bone and leads to paralysis of the lower limbs) and anencephaly (the absence of the major portion of the brain, skull and scalp during the embryonic development) (Colapinto et al, 2012). Thus, getting enough folic acid is critical for brain and nerve health (Colapinto et al, 2012). Moreover, folic acid helps the body to produce and maintain new cells. It is also required to make new red blood cells and helps to prevent some types of anemia (Colapinto et al, 2012). It may also help to protect against heart disease as this nutrient helps to reduce the homocysteine level that can induce heart disease. Moreover, there are increasingly evidences that folic acid functions in preserving memory. According to Corrada and colleagues (2005), high intake of folic acid can reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
5. N-ACETYL L-CYSTEINE
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the dietary amino acid L-cysteine. The body will convert NAC into cysteine and then into glutathione. Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant. Antioxidant functions to fight free radicals and harmful compounds in the body that induce damages to cell membranes and DNA. NAC replenishes intracellular levels of the glutathione and helps to restore cells’ ability to fight damage from free radicals. Free radicals play an important role in aging and hence NAC can prevent aging (Mayer & Noble, 1994). Moreover, NAC improved marker of liver health has been reported in several studies (McPherson & Hardy, 2011). Lee et al (2009) reported that NAC can protect the liver. NAC produces numerous beneficial effects in many human tissues both by supporting natural antioxidant systems and also by affecting expression of genes involved in inflammatory response (Mayer & Noble, 1994).